Galatians 5:22-23  But the fruit of the Spirit is: love, joy, peace, long-suffering, kindness, goodness, faith, 23  meekness, self-control; against such things there is no law.
1. Moderation; particularly, habitual moderation in regard to the indulgence of the natural appetites and passions; restrained or moderate indulgence; as temperance in eating and drinking; temperance in the indulgence of joy or mirth. Temperance in eating and drinking is opposed to gluttony and drunkenness, and in other indulgences, to excess.

2. Patience; calmness; sedateness; moderation of passion.

He calm'd his wrath with goodly temperance. [Unusual.]
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Of Saul - 1Sa_10:27
1Sa 10:27  But the sons of Belial said, How shall this man save us? And they despised him and brought him no present. But he was silent. 
Of David - 1Sa_24:1-15; 1 Sam 26:1-20
1Sa 24:1  And it happened when Saul had returned from following the Philistines, they told him, saying, Behold, David is in the wilderness of En-gedi. 2  And Saul took three thousand chosen men out of all Israel, and went to seek David and his men on the front of the rocks of the wild goats. 3  And he came to the folds of the flock on the way, where there was a cave. And Saul went in to cover his feet. And David and his men remained in the sides of the cave. 4  And the men of David said to him, Behold, this is the day of which Jehovah said to you, Behold, I will deliver your enemy into your hand so that you may do to him as it shall seem good to you. And David arose and cut off the skirt of Saul's robe secretly. 5  And it happened afterward David's heart struck him because he had cut off Saul's skirt. 6  And he said to his men, Far be it from me, by Jehovah, if I will do this thing to my lord, Jehovah's anointed, to stretch forth my hand against him, since he is the anointed of Jehovah. 7  And David held back his men with words, and did not allow them to rise against Saul. And Saul rose up out of the cave and went on his way. 8  And David arose afterward and went out of the cave, and cried after Saul, saying, My lord the king! And Saul looked behind him. And David bowed his face to the earth and prostrated himself. 9  And David said to Saul, Why do you hear man's words, saying, Behold, David seeks to do you evil? 10  Behold, your eyes have seen today how Jehovah had delivered you today into my hand in the cave. And one said to kill you. But I had pity on you. And I said, I will not put forth my hand against my lord, for he is Jehovah's anointed. 11  And, my father, behold! Yes, see the skirt of your robe in my hand. For in that I cut off the skirt of your robe and did not kill you, know and see that there is neither evil nor transgression in my hand, and I have not sinned against you. Yet you hunt my soul to take it. 12  May Jehovah judge between me and you, and may Jehovah avenge me of you. But my hand shall not be on you. 13  As the ancient proverb says, Wickedness proceeds from the wicked. But my hand shall not be on you. 14  After whom has the king of Israel come out? After whom do you pursue? After a dead dog? After a flea? 15  May Jehovah therefore be judge, and judge between you and me, and see, and plead my cause, and deliver me out of your hand. 
1Sa 26:1  And the Ziphites came to Saul at Gibeah, saying, Is not David hiding himself in the hill of Hachilah, on the edge of the desert? 2  And Saul arose and went down to the wilderness of Ziph to seek David in the wilderness of Ziph, having three thousand chosen men of Israel with him. 3  And Saul pitched in the hill of Hachilah, which is on the edge of the desert, by the highway. And David was staying in the wilderness. And he saw that Saul came after him into the wilderness. 4  And David sent out spies and knew that Saul had come indeed. 5  And David arose and came to the place where Saul had pitched. And David saw the place where Saul lay. And Abner the son of Ner, the captain of his army, and Saul were lying within the barricade. And the people pitched all around him. 6  And David answered and said to Ahimelech the Hittite, and to Abishai the son of Zeruiah, the brother of Joab, saying, Who will go down with me to the camp to Saul? And Abishai said, I will go down with you. 7  So David and Abishai came to the people by night. And behold, Saul lay sleeping in the tent, and his spear stuck in the ground at his head. But Abner and the people lay around him. 8  And Abishai said to David, God has shut up your enemy into your hand this day. And please let me strike him with the spear even to the earth at once, and I will not repeat it to him. 9  And David said to Abishai, Do not destroy him. For who can stretch forth his hand against Jehovah's anointed and be guiltless? 10  And David said, As Jehovah lives, except Jehovah strike him, or his day shall come, and he dies, or he goes down to battle and is consumed, 11  far be it from me by Jehovah, from putting forth my hand against Jehovah's anointed. And now, please take the spear at his head and the cruse of water, and we will go. 12  And David took the spear and the cruse of water from Saul's head. And they went away, and no one saw, and no one knew; and no one was awake; for all of them were sleeping, because a deep sleep from Jehovah had fallen on them. 13  And David went over to the other side and stood on the top of a hill afar off, a great space between them. 14  And David cried to the people and to Abner the son of Ner, saying, Do you not answer, Abner? And Abner answered and said, Who are you that cries to the king? 15  And David said to Abner, Are you not a man? And who is like you in Israel? But why have you not watched over your lord the king? For one of the people came in to destroy your lord the king. 16  This thing that you have done is not good. As Jehovah lives, because you have not watched over your master, Jehovah's anointed, you also are worthy to die. And now see where the king's spear is, and the cruse of water that was at his head. 17  And Saul knew David's voice and said, Is this your voice, my son David? And David said, It is my voice, my lord, O king. 18  And he said, Why does my lord pursue after his servant this way? For what have I done? Or what evil is in my hand? 19  And now, please let my lord the king hear the words of his servant. If Jehovah has stirred you up against me, let Him accept an offering. But if it is the sons of men, they are cursed before Jehovah. For they have driven me out today from joining myself with the inheritance of Jehovah, saying, Go, serve other gods. 20  And now, let not my blood fall to the earth before the face of Jehovah. For the king of Israel has come out to seek a flea, as when one hunts a partridge in the mountains. 
Of Jesus - Mat_26:62-63; Mat_27:12-14
Mat 26:62  And standing up, the high priest said to Him, Do you answer nothing? What is it that these witness against you? 
Mat 26:63  But Jesus was silent. And the high priest answered and said to Him, I adjure you by the living God that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God. 
Mat 27:12  And when He was accused by the chief priests and elders, He answered nothing. 13  Then Pilate said to Him, Do you not hear how many things they witness against you? 14  And He did not answer him a word, so that the governor greatly marveled. 
Self-Control - self-kon-trōl´ (ἐγκράτεια, egkráteia): Rendered in the King James Version “temperance” (compare Latin temperario and continentia), but more accurately “self-control,” as in the Revised Version (British and American) (Act_24:25; Gal_5:23; 2Pe_1:6); adjective of same, ἐγκρατής, egkratḗs, “self-controlled” (Tit_1:8 the Revised Version (British and American)); compare verb forms in 1Co_7:9, “have ... continency”; 1Co_9:25, the athlete “exerciseth self-control.” Self-control is therefore repeatedly set forth in the New Testament as among the important Christian virtues.

Temperance; Temperate
tem´pẽr-ans; tem´pẽr-ā́t (ἐγκράτεια, egkráteia), (ἐγκρατής, egkratḗs, νηφάλιος, nēphálios, σώφρων, sṓphrōn): the American Standard Revised Version departs from the King James Version and the English Revised Version by translating egkrateia “self-control” (Act_24:25; Gal_5:23; 2Pe_1:6; 1Co_9:25), following the English Revised Version margin in several of these passages. This meaning is in accordance with classical usage, Plato applying it to “mastery” not only of self, but of any object denoted by a genitive following. Septuagint applies it to the possession “of strongholds” (2 Macc 8:30; 10:15), “of a position” (2 Macc 10:17), “of the city” (2 Macc 13:13), “of wisdom” (Sirach 6:27). The reflexive meaning of “self-mastery,” “self-restraint,” is equally well established in the classics and Septuagint. Thus, in the verbal form, it is found in Gen_43:31, for the self-restraint exercised by Joseph in the presence of his brethren, when they appeared before him as suppliants, and in 1Sa_13:12, where Saul professes that he “forced” himself to do what was contrary to his desire. For patristic use of the term, see illustrations in Suicer's Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus, I, 1000 ff. Clement of Alexandria: “Not abstaining from all things, but using continently such things as one has judged should be used”; “such things as do not seem beyond right reason.” Basil: “To avoid excess on both sides, so as neither by luxury to be confused, nor, by becoming sickly, to be disabled from doing what has been commanded.” Chrysostom (on 1Ti_1:8) applies it to “one mastering passion of tongue, hand and unbridled eyes.” Ellicott and Eadie (on Gal_5:23) quote Diogenes Laertius to the effect that the word refers to “control over the stronger passions.” In 1Co_9:25, Paul illustrates it by the training of an athlete, whose regimen is not only described in the Ars Poetica of Horace (412 ff), and in Epictetus (quoted in Alford on this passage), but can be learned of the many devotees and admirers of similar pursuits today.
The principle involved is that of the concentration of all man's powers and capabilities upon the one end of doing God's will, in and through whatever calling God appoints, and the renunciation of everything either wholly or to whatever degree necessary, however innocent or useful it may be in its proper place, that interferes with one's highest efficiency in this calling (1Co_10:31). Not limited to abstinence, it is rather the power and decision to abstain with reference to some fixed end, and the use of the impulses of physical, as servants for the moral, life. It does not refer to any one class of objects that meets us, but to all; to what concerns speech and judgment, as well as to what appeals to sense. It is properly an inner spiritual virtue, working into the outward life, incapable of being counterfeited or replaced by any abstinence limited to that which is external (Augsburg Confession, Articles XXVI, XXVII). When its absence, however, is referred to as sin, the negative is generally more prominent than the positive side of temperance. The reference in Act_24:25 is to chastity, and in 1Co_7:9, as the context shows, to the inner side of chastity. In 1Ti_3:2, 1Ti_3:11; Tit_2:2, the word nēphalios has its original meaning as the opposite to “drunken” (see SOBRIETY; DRINK, STRONG). See also the treatises on ethics by Luthardt (both the Compendium and the History), Martensen, Koestlin and Haring on temperance, asceticism, continence.

General references
Est 1:7  And they gave them drink in vessels of gold, the vessels being different from one another, and royal wine in abundance, according to the hand of the king. 
Est 1:8  And the drinking was according to the law, no one compelling, for so the king had commanded every chief of his house that they should do according to every man's pleasure. 
Pro 23:1  When you sit down to eat with a ruler, look carefully at what is before you; 2  and put a knife to your throat, if you are a man given to appetite. 3  Do not desire his delicacies, for they are deceitful food. 
Pro 25:16  Have you found honey? Eat only as much as is enough for you, lest you be filled with it and vomit it. 
Dan 1:8  But Daniel laid on his heart that he would not defile himself with the king's food, nor with the wine which he drank. So he asked permission of the chief of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself. 
Dan 1:12  I beg you, try your servants ten days. And let them give us vegetables to eat and water to drink. 13  Then let our appearance be seen before you, and the appearance of the boys who eat of the king's food. And as you see, deal with your servants. 14  So he listened to them in this matter, and tried them for ten days. 15  And at the end of ten days their faces looked fairer and fatter in flesh than all the boys who had eaten the king's food. 16  So Melzar took away their part of the food, and the wine that they were to drink, and gave them vegetables. 
Rom 13:14  But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and do not take thought beforehand for the lusts of the flesh. 
1Co 9:25  And everyone who strives for the mastery is temperate in all things. Then those truly that they may receive a corruptible crown, but we an incorruptible. 
1Co 9:27  But I buffet my body, and lead it captive, lest proclaiming to others I myself might be rejected. 
Php 4:5  Let your moderation be known to all men. The Lord is at hand. 
1Th 5:6  Therefore let us not sleep as the rest do, but let us watch and be calm. 7  For those sleeping sleep in the night, and those being drunken are drunken in the night. 8  But let us, who are of the day, be calm, having put on the breastplate of faith and love and the hope of salvation for a helmet. 
1Ti 3:2  Then it behooves the overseer to be without reproach, husband of one wife, temperate, sensible, well-ordered, hospitable, apt at teaching, 3  not a drunkard, not contentious, not greedy of ill gain, but gentle, not quarrelsome, not covetous, 
Tit 1:7  For an overseer must be blameless, as a steward of God, not self-willed, not full of passion, not given to wine, not quarrelsome, not greedy for ill gain; 8  but hospitable, a lover of good, discreet, just, holy, temperate, 
1Ti 3:8  Likewise the deacons are to be reverent, not double-tongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of ill gain, 
Tit 2:2  aged men to be temperate, sensible, discreet, sound in faith, in love, in patience. 3  Let the aged women likewise be in reverent behavior, not slanderers, not enslaved by much wine, teachers of good; 
Tit 2:12  teaching us that having denied ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live discreetly, righteously and godly, in this present world, 
2Pe 1:5  But also in this very thing, bringing in all diligence, filling out your faith with virtue, and with virtue, knowledge; 6  and with knowledge self-control, and with self-control, patience, and with patience, godliness,